State of the art battery technology
Lithium Iron Phosphate over 200 Wh/kg - Sodium is there like salt in the sea - CATL announces 500 Wh/kg.
Who killed the electric car? The lead battery and similar miserable battery chemistries. I had to make this experience personally from 2006 to 2009, when I completely scrapped 3 sets of lead batteries over 17,300 km during the first electric scooter test.
Even the first lithium batteries were orders of magnitude better. The battery in the first Tesla Roadster weighed 408 kg for 56 kWh. That's 137 Wh/kg. BYD relied on lithium iron phosphate. The first BYD e6 had a 60 kWh battery that weighed 750 kg. Is 80 Wh/kg. Thus, the BYD e6 had the temperament of a Mercedes diesel cab of the 60s, was also mostly used as a cab.
Lithium iron phosphate - LiFePo4 - has considerable advantages over lithium cobalt ion: no expensive nickel, no expensive and image-damaging cobalt, the initial disadvantage in power-to-weight ratio could be made up. Tesla supplies the cheaper variants with LiFePo4, BYD all electric cars with LiFePo4.
At the USGS you can read how proven mineable reserves and consumption have evolved. Mineable reserves have increased to 98 million tons, 110 kWh of lithium battery for each of 10 billion people.
At a certain point of price for solar power and technical progress to extract lithium from seawater, this will increase about a thousandfold if seawater is counted as a mineable deposit.
Currently at 160 Wh/kg, soon at 200 Wh/kg. Already better than the battery in the first Tesla Roadster. Sodium batteries take demand pressure off the lithium market and make electric cars cheaper than cars with combustion engines.
But where are the upper limits in the application? Let's try installing 30,000 t of sodium batteries in the CMA CGM Nevada container ship. That would be 6 GWh of batteries. The ship has 72 MW propulsion power for 25.4 knots equals 47 km/h. 3,900 km at full speed. At half power, 37 km/h, that increases to 6,150 km.
The Liberty freighters in WW2 only went 20 km/h. With the crawl it would go 21,600 km.
At €50 per kWh battery, these cost €300 million. Let's divide the cost over 10 years, 10 large voyages per year, 6000 40' containers. 300 million € divided by 60 thousand containers, makes 500 €.
In recent years, freight costs from Shenzhen to Kopper have fluctuated between US$2,000 and US$12,000 per 40' container. Electricity could even become cheaper than heavy oil in terms of powering a ship.
CATL is the largest battery manufacturer in the world. They certainly don't announce anything that they can't deliver with certainty. With 500 Wh/kg and a 600 kg battery in an aerodynamically good sedan, you could drive from Munich to Berlin continuously at 200 km/h without recharging. At 130 km/h, Munich - Berlin - Munich would then be possible, which is 1,250 km. This leads the e-fuel debate for road vehicles completely into absurdity. 3 t battery in a truck would be 1,500 kWh and well over 1,000 km range. I just saw a hydrogen truck with 400 km range. The defeat of the hydrogen lobby could not be more devastating.
But this battery is intended for higher, for airplanes. At Aviation Alice there are currently 900 to 980 kWh battery with 3,600 kg. The difference between the weight of the cells and the complete battery pack is hard to estimate, but 500 Wh/kg would be a very substantial increase. Maybe 1,500 kWh battery, instead of 980 kWh?
The power grid and its design. A typical example is a 400 kVA transformer for 100 single-family houses. Each has a 17 kW power connection, but if everyone wanted 17 kW at the same time. How much solar power can be taken from such a settlement? Depends entirely on the electricity storage. Without storage 2,800 kWh on a very sunny summer day. With 3 kWh battery per kW peak photovoltaic already 7.200 kWh. If you introduce a second battery level, not quite as efficient as lithium or sodium, but very cheap, you could install much more photovoltaic in such a settlement with the same power grid. 900 kWh annual yield per kW peak (mix of different orientations) is only 102 W distributed over 365 days and 24 h. The highest possible daily yield is 7 kWh. Spread over 24 h 291 W. If one would store each daily yield above 150 W in air-iron batteries, one would get along with considerably less grid expansion.
It is frustrating that there are no serious studies on how to optimize the costs of the energy transition. On the contrary, there are only studies on how to make it as expensive as possible. Unfortunately, the instrument of the dissertation exchange has proven unsuitable for this purpose, because the supervising university professors know exactly which topics are undesirable and endanger the student's career. A student can be so enthusiastic about a dissertation topic, but after a week it is only "My professor strongly advised me against it".
How will inflation and higher interest rates affect the homebuilders who are in the blue lagoon at SCS (Shopping City South)? Carry on as before seems to be the only motto there. Now and then photovoltaics in homeopathic doses would have been great 30 years ago, but today far too little. The focus is on traditional materials, whatever the cost. Concrete foundation, first the tiled roof, then a few photovoltaic modules. The only thing is that fewer and fewer customers can afford this "whatever it takes" approach.
My visit showed in all clarity why my brochure starts with "The old EFH is dead, long live the new EFH". Previous disruptions took place in quite vibrant industries, car versus horse, digital camera versus chemical film, smartphone versus simple cell phone, electric car versus internal combustion engine car.
But this is where the disruption ClimateProtectionSuperiorHouses represented by the GEMINI next Generation House meets an industry that is already in very considerable trouble due to extreme hostility to innovation,
As a shareholder, employee or homebuyer, you will also become part of the countermovement against many negative developments in our society that are detrimental to our survival.
A new shareholder said "I with my very modest investment", but 4,000 times 1,000 € is also 4 million for all investments until the opening of the settlement in Unken as a starting point for worldwide expansion.
Only the Annual General Meeting can resolve the major capital increases, but here is what the Executive Board and Supervisory Board can resolve. The new capital stock is used to perfect the documents for the larger planned capital increases.
Here are the details.